Lithium battery” is a kind of battery that uses lithium metal or a lithium alloy as the negative electrode material and uses a non-aqueous electrolyte solution. In 1912, lithium metal battery was first proposed and studied by Gilbert N. Lewis. In the 1970s, MS Whittingham proposed and Lithium-ion batteries have been studied. Due to the very active chemical properties of lithium metal, the processing, storage, and use of lithium metal are very demanding on the environment. With the development of science and technology, lithium batteries have become the mainstream.
Lithium batteries can be roughly divided into two categories: lithium metal batteries and lithium ion batteries. Lithium-ion batteries do not contain metallic lithium and are rechargeable. The fifth-generation lithium-metal battery of rechargeable batteries was born in 1996, and its safety, specific capacity, self-discharge rate, and performance price ratio are better than lithium-ion batteries. Due to its own high technical requirements, only a few companies in the country are producing such lithium metal batteries.
Lithium metal battery:
A lithium metal battery is generally a battery using manganese dioxide as a positive electrode material, metallic lithium or an alloy metal thereof as a negative electrode material, and a nonaqueous electrolyte solution.
Discharge reaction: Li+MnO2=LiMnO2
A lithium ion battery is generally a battery using a lithium alloy metal oxide as a positive electrode material, graphite as a negative electrode material, and a nonaqueous electrolyte.
The reaction occurring on the charged positive electrode is
The reaction occurring on the charging negative electrode is
6C+XLi++Xe- = LixC6
Rechargeable battery total reaction: LiCoO2+6C = Li(1-x)CoO2+LixC6